Unique in our 50 states, the draft 2040 California Transportation Plan (CTP) has an aggressive approach to climate protection and congestion reduction. It offers a more realistic "eat your spinach, it’s good for you" approach to reducing transport GHG. Other US locations follow the less realistic "hot fudge sundae diet" approach, making hard-to-believe promises of painless GHG reduction.
Specifically, CTP introduces a 75% increase in vehicle operating costs (from $0.22 per mile, comprised mostly of gas costs @ 24.6 mpg fuel economy) to change behavior, reducing vehicle miles traveled (VMT)/GHG by 17.3%. This is the boldest policy to change travel behavior ever broached by a state.
Higher occupancy inside vehicles is envisioned, with all HOV2 freeway lanes converting to HOV3 and HOV4 (four passengers per car in the carpool lane), and some "general purpose" freeway lanes converting to HOV. A doubling of transit is envisioned (but the plan "hand waves" about financing such an effort.)
States the CTP draft (page 90), "Road capacity enhancing strategies were rejected due to concerns these would ultimately increase VMT." (This may impact the Expressway 2040 proposal.) Comments advocacy watchdog Transdef, "Ending highway widening will be a major shock to the contractor/local government/CMA/MPO/CTC/Legislature ecosystem." (Our CMA is VTA, our MPO is MTC.)
FYI: 163-page CTP draft: Web Link