Battle of the bookstores | September 22, 2006 | Palo Alto Weekly | Palo Alto Online |

Palo Alto Weekly

Arts & Entertainment - September 22, 2006

Battle of the bookstores

New documentary follows the struggles of small California booksellers

by Elliot Margolies

The bell tolls for independent bookstores.

In May, the Telegraph Avenue location of Cody's Books in Berkeley -- as integral to the street as the beads and pipe vendors lining the sidewalk -- closed. San Francisco's A Clean Well-Lighted Place for Books went dark in July.

In 1996, there were 22 independent bookstores operating in Palo Alto, Menlo Park, and Mountain View, according to the phone book. A decade later, there are only 11.

So "Indies Under Fire: The Battle for the American Bookstore" feels particularly timely. It's a new documentary produced and directed by Jacob Bricca, a former Palo Altan who grew up between the bookshelves at Printers Inc., the California Avenue institution that closed in 2001. He now lives in Connecticut and balances his filmmaking with teaching at Wesleyan University.

Fittingly, the hour-long video will be screened on Sept. 30, as part of an event celebrating the "rebirth" of Kepler's Books in Menlo Park, a year after that shop's temporary closure. The event, held in Menlo Park, will also include a panel discussion with Kepler's owner Clark Kepler and others in the industry.

Bricca started working on his documentary in December 1998, when news hit that Printers Inc. would close down in three months. He was a film editor in Los Angeles at the time. He ended up with a documentary that also chronicles the struggles of independent bookstores in Santa Cruz and Capitola.

"I was just one of many who were shocked and saddened at the news that Printers Inc. was closing. People felt a certain ownership of the place, like it belonged to them," Bricca said in an interview with the Weekly.

Bricca learned that the '90s had brought one wave after another of competition to independent bookstores. Big discount chain Crown Books had challenged and failed, but the successor chains, Borders and Barnes & Noble, had better recipes.

In addition, such big-box stores as Target and Costco carved a market selling deeply discounted best sellers. Then came Amazon. Subsequently, more than half of the independent bookstores in the U.S. shut down between 1993 and 2003, according to Bricca's movie.

Gerry Masteller, former co-owner of Printers Inc., also mentioned another powerful challenge in an interview.

"It's about the struggle for people's discretionary time," he said. "I sense we're losing readers. We're looking at a younger generation that is as familiar with working on a computer and playing on the Internet as they are with books."

"Indies Under Fire" recounts how Printers Inc. got started as an exhilarating venture by five Kepler's employees in 1978. The staff members had their niches: co-owner Susan MacDonald, for instance, was the children's book buyer, while Masteller enjoyed art books.

But in the late '90s, as Masteller told the Weekly, the large pharmacy chain Rite Aid decided that California Avenue was the perfect location for a new store and that they were willing to pay a hefty rent to move in. The Printers Inc. lease was about to be renegotiated, and Masteller and MacDonald, the two remaining owners, knew they couldn't match the Rite Aid offer.

As it turned out, Rite Aid changed its mind about California Avenue. However, Masteller and MacDonald decided they'd had enough.

"We saw that we'd be working harder and harder for less return and certainly in riskier circumstances," Masteller said. "The rent situation triggered a long look at the future of the book business."

As shown in "Indies Under Fire," a young buyer -- the store's accountant, Matthew Duran -- stepped forward. But the new chapter was the final one. Two years later amidst crippling debt and many bare shelves, the store closed for good.

Duran was not available for the postmortem interviews in the documentary, but MacDonald and Masteller claim in the film that he didn't accept any help to keep the store going, either from them or from loyal patrons.

Meanwhile, other local indies work to keep the doors open. With growing debts and a dramatic rent increase, Clark Kepler closed his store last Aug. 31. But a successful campaign -- including 23 local investors paying off the debts and a board of directors being established -- allowed the store to reopen in October.

Kepler's also hired a marketing officer, Anne Banta, and did some reorganizing that included having the newspapers lose their prime location to a potpourri of loosely related merchandise such as bath salts, fair-trade crafts and coffee mugs.

"On the business side, the margins are so tight on the books," Banta said in an interview, noting that finding an appropriate mix of other merchandise can "make or break a bookstore nowadays."

Recent surveys of Kepler's customers show that more than half also buy books from competitors Amazon and Borders. Borders is also a focus of "Indies Under Fire," which explores the chain's formula for success.

In the movie, Borders executive Joe Tosney tells Bricca: "If you think we're some kind of big bad predatory animal coming in...if you think having a beautiful, well-staffed, well-stocked bookstore is a bad thing, I'm sorry. That's what we do."

The camera also follows struggles to keep Borders out of Capitola and Santa Cruz. In one uncomfortably tense segment, the developer faces down a hostile audience at a Capitola city council meeting. He compares a council that would erect barriers to Borders' entry to a coach who favors weak athletes.

There's no question that if bookselling were a sport, indies would be the underdogs. Masteller told the Weekly that he wasn't sure a Printers Inc.-style operation is doable at this point. He believes success for an independent is more likely if the store specializes in one genre and is in a vacation area where people have plenty of leisure time.

Meanwhile, Clark Kepler said he feels exhilarated with the rebirth of Kepler's. "I've had my near-death experience and now everything is a bonus."

Will Kepler's and its ilk survive? Ultimately it depends on whether a new generation weaned on Internet, video games, and YouTube will find more appeal in a locally owned bookstore than a Borders.

Indeed, it depends on whether the next generation finds enough time for reading books at all.

What: Screening of the documentary "Indies Under Fire: The Battle for the American Bookstore," followed by a panel discussion with film producer Jonathan Crosby; Kepler's Books owner Clark Kepler; former Printers Inc. co-owner Susan MacDonald; Cody's Books owner Andy Ross; and Hut Landon, president of the Northern California Independent Booksellers Association

Where: Menlo Park Presbyterian Church's community meeting room, 700 Santa Cruz Ave., Menlo Park

When: Sept. 30, 7:30 p.m.

Cost: Free

Info: Go to


Like this comment
Posted by Parent of 2 PAUSD students
a resident of Meadow Park
on Nov 9, 2007 at 9:18 pm

I miss Printers Inc. a lot. It had a great selection, and was a wonderful place to go shopping on my lunch hour, or at dinner in Mountain View. I've been to Books Inc. (both the replacement for the Mountain View store and the Stanford Mall store), and unfortunately it just does not have anywhere as good a selection as Printer's Inc. used to. Keplers is still wonderful, but more out of my way, unfortunately.

Like this comment
Posted by Terry
a resident of Midtown
on Nov 9, 2007 at 10:24 pm

I like Borders personally - great selection, huge inventory, always hopping. Too bad there isn't a Barnes & Noble around, they are awesome. Indies are fine, too, but personally I have not seen the attraction - they are mostly smaller and not as nice a place to shop.

Like this comment
Posted by Mike
a resident of College Terrace
on Nov 10, 2007 at 12:54 am

It's unfortunate that independent booksellers have begun to disappear.

That said, it's important to know the other side of the story.

When Amazon was in its nascent stages, the ABA (American Bookseller's Assn.) started, which was touted as a way for independents to compete with Amazon. It never materialized as a serious threat because the independents would not organize.

About Printer's Ink: when it's accountant bought the store, he used a weirdly peculiar way to pay off the buyback debt. It worked something like this: when a book sold off the shelves, it was not replaced in stock. Rather, the profits from the book were used to pay off the debt. Within months of the takeover, one would walk into PI and see one empty or near-empty shelf after another, with books facing forward, instead of spine-to-spine - to fill shelf space. Stock didn't rotate. I've never seen anything like it. Within a few more months, PI became devoid of shoppers who were weary of seeing the same old (diminishing) supply of books. The new owner simply did not understand the book business, or that the main trigger to consumer buying behavior in a bookstore is the *large availability* of stock for customers to browse.

PI was an anchor for California Ave., along with the now-defunct movie theatre up the street (currently a rug shop that is on the verge of closing its doors).

California Ave. has thus evolved to a restaurant and beauty shop haven. Hopefully, more enlightened developers and landlords (and maybe our policy makers) will do something to encourage more retail variety.

One last thing about PI. We need to find a way to work with landlords in Palo Alto, in a way that is non-threatening, but that creates a conversation that helps landlords understand the value of keeping viable businesses alive, and finding innovative ways to keep retail churn to a minimum...this profits everyone, including the landlords.

Pi could still be here if the landlord hadn't succumbed to the Rite-Aid offer, but had chosen to work with PI so that everyone could win.

Like this comment
Posted by trudy
a resident of Crescent Park
on Nov 11, 2007 at 7:34 am


I use all the time. You can get there from by clicking on the online ordering link. Works like a charm, and books arrive promptly.

Would that I still lived near Palo Alto, a visit to Keplers was a joy. At least I can still help keep them in business by using their booksense link.

Sorry, but further commenting on this topic has been closed.