News

Youth narcotics use is down, but potency of 'street drugs' is up

Arrest of naked man allegedly on narcotics uncommon but unsurprising, counselors say

Use of narcotics -- like those allegedly ingested by the Palo Alto 18-year-old who was arrested after trespassing and fighting residents on Colorado Avenue Friday, April 4 -- has declined among local youth, according to survey data.

But police and youth counselors said the increased potency of many of today's street drugs combined with relaxed attitudes toward marijuana use still land too many local teens in the hospital or in jail.

Police booked 18-year-old Daiki Minaki of Palo Alto on one count of felony battery and six misdemeanor charges (resisting arrest, battery on an officer, under the influence of narcotics, battery and two counts of trespassing) after apprehending him naked in Midtown, having allegedly beaten a woman walking her dog and fought two residents in their homes.

"This kind of episode is not common — and I understand why we are curious and concerned," said Becky Beacom, manager of health education at the Palo Alto Medical Foundation.

"Our small percentages (of narcotics use by youth) still translate into too-high numbers of actual youth whom we care about and, in this particular case, innocent victims as well."

Self-reported use of prescription narcotics, such as oxycontin and vicodin — even once — dropped among Palo Alto 11th graders from 9 percent in 2010 to 7 percent in 2012, according to the California Healthy Kids Survey. Use of heroin in the same period dropped from 2 percent to 1 percent. New survey results for 2014 are expected to be released soon, Beacom said.

Police and drug counselors could only speculate on how Minaki could have ingested whatever substance allegedly sparked Friday's outburst that led to his arrest.

But they said increased potency of today's street drugs can have unintended consequences, whether someone is a first-time user or a repeat user.

"It could be that he thought he was smoking marijuana and it was laced with something," said Darin Conway, a therapist who runs the mental-health counseling program at Los Gatos High School through Counseling and Support Services for Youth (CASSY).

"The rules still apply that if you're at a party and you're drinking something, don't set your drink down and leave it alone and pick it up again, because you never know what somebody's going to slip into something," she said. "Drugs are drugs — they're illegal and they're not regulated so you never know exactly what you're getting."

Palo Alto Police Detective Sergeant Brian Philip said he sees a serious problem in Palo Alto with abuse of prescription drugs among youth. "They'll either take it from their parents or go into other parents' medicine cabinets at high school parties," Philip said.

Philip said he's seen local high school students who were crushing and encapsulating painkillers such as oxycodone, hydrocodone and vicodin, cutting dosages in half and selling them by the pill.

But alcohol and marijuana remain the paramount issues for Palo Alto teens, police and counselors said.

Moves toward legalizing marijuana in some states have led to a reduction in perceived risk of what actually remains a dangerous drug for teens, they said.

"Marijuana is a very serious problem. It's a gateway drug," Philip said. "It can have serious effects on someone's developing brain."

In the 2012 California Healthy Kids Survey, 23 percent of Palo Alto 11th graders reported having used marijuana four or more times — slightly up from 21 percent in 2010. Thirty-two percent reported having used alcohol four or more times — down from 37 percent in 2010.

Palo Alto police cited 22 juveniles for possession of marijuana, either on school campuses or in the community, since Jan. 1, 2013, he said.

In two recent cases, a Palo Alto middle school student was caught smoking marijuana in a school bathroom and a high school student on campus was found in possession of narcotics, marijuana and marijuana paraphernalia, according to Palo Alto Police Detective and School Resource Officer DuJuan Green.

Therapist Connie Mayer, director of outpatient counseling services at Palo Alto's Adolescent Counseling Services, said she was not surprised by the apparent bad reaction Minaki experienced last Friday.

"The only real surprise here is that he wasn't wearing any clothes and was quite violent," she said. "We see teens that are overdosing and having bad reactions" leading to hospitalizations.

Adolescent Counseling Services Executive Director Philippe Rey said, "There's a trend of community apathy when it comes to drug use — especially marijuana — where parents will no longer put their kids in treatment because it's 'only marijuana' and as long as they're keeping their grades up, who cares?

"We're still talking about underage kids with their brain functions still developing, and it may affect their cognitive abilities and development."

Mayer said there's a "misperception that marijuana is less dangerous than alcohol, especially with legalization and with parents who may have smoked in the '60s and '70s.

"But it's a different drug now, much more potent," she said. "There are derivatives of potency that are unbelievable.

"There's so much shame in this community, and we reduce that here," she said. "We provide a safe place for parents and teens to talk, without pain or shame, about what's going on and to heal."

Comments

 +   Like this comment
Posted by Paly Parent
a resident of Palo Alto High School
on Apr 11, 2014 at 8:39 am

As a parent this is something that really bothers me in our schools. Even this article quotes pot being smoked in middle school bathrooms as well as on our high school campuses.

Alcohol and drug use is a big problem with all sorts of consequences.

Unfortunately at Paly there seems to be more concern about adolescent exhibitionism of streaking more than the much more serious concern of adolescent drug and alcohol use.

This is something that has been evident to me any time I have been on campus after school hours. The smell from pot as well as cigarettes is easily identifiable and can be traced and investigated by officials, except nobody seems to do anything about it. But one naked child is hounded by officials chasing and making it a game. I wish they would stop sensationalizing the streaking and start taking drugs seriously.


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Posted by AfterMath
a resident of Midtown
on Apr 11, 2014 at 8:54 am

A few years ago, after my son graduated from Paly, I took in a foster daughter for a couple of years. She had been in Juvenile Hall for selling meth and Ecstasy to students at Paly and Castilleja.

According to this girl, who revealed this to me after a year of living with us, there is an unquenchable demand for these drugs and any drug that keeps the user awake, and, in the case of young girls, also kills appetite. She claimed it was the marathon studying and pressure to be thin in Palo Alto that created such a market, and that others stepped in to fill her spot as soon as she was off the scene!


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Posted by Wondering?
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 14, 2014 at 9:37 am

Wonder if any of the articles tracking this midtown incident will be providing any information about this kid's drug use, and where he got these drugs? It stands to reason that if this kid got them locally--lots of other high schoolers are getting them from the same, or similar, sources.

Shame that few seem to show much interest in this question.


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Posted by Student3005
a resident of Fairmeadow
on Apr 14, 2014 at 11:05 am

As a student that actively "smokes dope" from this school and this community let me be the first to inform on how much of a fallacy these ideals about marijuana truly are. While I agree marijuana is a gateway drug, it is important to understand that not all students are utterly incompetent to the point where once they try smoking they are bound to experiment with higher level drugs.

Some parents in this community need to accept that this is a war that can not be won. There will always be someone smoking dope or cigarettes on campus or in the proximity. What CAN be done about this situation is additional communication. Whether you believe me or not, it is not the schools fault that your child is experimenting. Odds are that they were exposed to narcotics in that scene, but it is ultimately up to the parents of the children to talk with them about the dangers that they are encountering. Although talking about drugs with your children can only do so much, if you express to them how much that these drugs can harm them and the people around them most children will be likely to listen and heed the warning.


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Posted by Concerned mom
a resident of Jordan Middle School
on Apr 14, 2014 at 11:16 am

My child was introduced to marijuana in middle school when she was only in sixth grade. In addition to the smoking, mostly done after school at midtown, she had a friend who brought medicinal weed cookies to school in his backpack. This drug is rampant, and I find it very disturbing. I would be interested in hearing from one of the school officers address this in this forum.


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Posted by dontregretit
a resident of Gunn High School
on Apr 14, 2014 at 11:57 am

As somebody who smoked weed in the bathroom of the high school in 1980, as well as many other places, I don't regret it a bit and would do it again in a heartbeat. If you really stop and think about it all weed does is make somebody "feel" a certain way, not unlike a bag of potato chips does, a martini does, or even an orgasm does. Before somebody outside of my body starts being the "feeling police" telling me what kinds of feelings and experiences I can or can't have, I would ask why do you bother? I can see if the marijuana use is causing me to become violent or a thief or something else, but if all it is doing is changing the way I feel-or even think, in a given moment, and I am not hurting anybody, why do YOU have to come along and tell me it's "not okay" for me to feel that way. It's just more morality police in a different uniform. Driving impaired, bad news, being unmotivated-for me pot has the opposite effect, but if it did, let me live with the consequences, which should include Mom and Dad not supporting me indefinitely, and then I'll get up and go to work, but absent these things maybe we should all chill out about this issue.

I smoked a lot of weed, starting at age 14 and neither I nor anybody else sees any evidence that it impacted my developing brain as I stayed on the honor roll and went to college and have a very successful career now. I wonder how much "Reefer Madness" is in play here as I have never met a soul who smoked pot when their brain was developing and thinks it ruined them. Yes, some people do get lazy, apparently, but if you read history, some kids have always been lazy slackers trying to do as little as possible, and stay that way, all through history. Can't blame weed for that! And if that is a "side effect" then that person might want to consider stopping, just like the person with the extra 20 pounds of fat might want to skip the ice-cream, but at the end of the day it is a personal choice. They guy with the clogged arteries may have a car accident on 280 and hurt people, but I don't see anybody forcing him off his chips...

My parents used to punish and ground me for months and it never for one second stopped how I felt about pot. It didn't stop me from using and enjoying it, it only made me feel like I was a "bad" person in their eyes, which I was. That shame they inflicted on me for the simple "sin" of wanting to feel a certain way did far more lasting damage to my heart, mind, and soul than any toke ever did.

As an epilogue, I did just fine in life. When my son started smoking pot, I remembered back to my "day", chuckled, began to focus on "harm reduction" rather than trying to force abstinence on him, which only would have driven him underground. I am the parent they can call if they get into trouble, and their friends all appreciate it, too. I am the parent who doesn't notice the pungent waft coming out of the bedroom and they aren't driving around trying to find a place to stop and smoke before the cops show up, and then driving around some more. I am the parent who my kids can talk to and they tell me everything. I am the opposite of how my parents were and my kids are way more at peace than I was because of it. It took me having kids and watching them do their thing to realize my parents harshly judged me and drove me away from them, rather than accepting me and working with me, not making me "ashamed" of enjoying a plant like millions and millions and millions of others obviously do. Food for thought!

Speaking of food for thought, before you send your kid to "addiction treatment, please make not of how many overweight people who are addicted to food are providing that "treatment". Do read about how AA and traditional models don't work, but were marketed well.)

My father had Alzheimer's. I understand weed prevents the plaque from forming. So all those years my father was punishing me, and having a stiff drink at night, maybe it was him who was dying the slow painful death of his brain cells, not me.


Chill out parents, love your kids and guide them. Ask yourself why you want to control how they feel. It's the same mentality that tries to tell somebody who is gay not to be. If your kids don't get to tell you how you should feel, or you don't like it when others do it to you, then maybe you should think about leaving them be, perhaps exploring what is going on (like did your daughter get raped at that party but can't tell you and pot is helping with the PTSD? Or is the anxiety from the intense pressure of Paly schools causing them to need a way to relax, or do they just like thinking outside of the "box"? Go there with them, accept what they tell you, lovingly. Let them have their ride on this planet, don't force yours on them. They will thank you for it.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Everyone's brain is different
a resident of Midtown
on Apr 14, 2014 at 12:36 pm

Dear dontregretit, I appreciate your experiences, and how you are thoughtfully raising your children. Please keep in mind that some people try weed once and their brain is instantly addicted, and just can't stop the cravings. That is how it become really dangerous. And just bc it didn't hurt your developing brain, doesn't mean it won't hurt others. Everyone is wired differently. I'm not saying I have the answers, but your experience is yours, the outcome could be different for others.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Wondering?
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 14, 2014 at 1:17 pm

> As a student that actively "smokes dope" from this school and this
> community let me be the first to inform on how much of a fallacy
> these ideals about marijuana truly are

Isn't it nice that someone who just a high school student, with no experiences outside the bubble of being a child in this town of elitism, is going to set us straight about the dangers of marijuana—and presumably all other drugs that are floating around.

This is (presumably) a young man of 16, or 17, years of age. Wonder just what experiences he has had with drug overdoses? Or how the Paly student who broke into people's homes, beat them up—endangering them, and himself (keeping in mind that he might have actually attacked an armed police officer who might have shot him dead in order to protect himself, and/or others). Got to wonder just how much marijuana this lad had taken previously to this incident? Gateway drug? Well, if Daiki Minaki is any example—this is what happens when you come to believe that marijuana is no problem at all—and anyone who says otherwise is a fool!

It's a real shame that our police department has not performed periodic raids on the two schools, and on the Stanford Campus—looking for drugs of any kind. Sadly, our police don't want the pushback from the many parents who believe that the laws don't apply to them, or their kids.

Anyone in high school professing to be OK—even though they admit to frequent drug use—demonstrate the failure of society to truly educate its young about the dangers of drugs, as well as the dangers of arrogance.

It will be interesting to see what happens to Daiki Minaki? Whether a good lawyer will end up finding ways to get him off, or if he will end up doing some hard time. It will also be interesting to see if those whose homes have been violated by this moron will be able to recover damages from him, or his parents.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Hung Lo
a resident of Crescent Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 1:21 pm

[Post removed.]


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Dean
a resident of Midtown
on Apr 14, 2014 at 1:55 pm

Again, in the interest of full disclosure, I'm a former Mid-towner and Cubbberley grad.

Could somebody put in bold letters "Marijuana is a gateway drug" and email this to every secondary schooler in PAUSD? .....I know that's not PC but......

Call me "old-school" (I am), but having made more than my share of errors in judgement in my teen and adult life, I'm happy that trying marijuana was not one of them.

I've fought, and largely won by example and just plain cajoling, the drug battles with our three adult children who grew up in a large city where drugs are far too plentiful city-wide.

Aside from the health concerns, it just makes no sense to put money in the hands of drug cartels who ultimately prosper by the purchase of mj.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by neighbor
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 14, 2014 at 2:11 pm

All this huffiness! Check out HuffPo on the drop of crime after pot legalized in Colorado:
Web Link
I don't smoke pot; tried it a few times as a teen and young adult. No biggie. But I also don't drink liquor very often and I am acutely conscious of the havoc and crime and illness liquor has inflicted upon our communities...
I just think liquor, pot, and cigarettes should all be legal at age 18. If you can be in the military, you should be able to drink, as they do in the British navy by custom w/o issues.
For underage, school kids, obviously all three of these things are in fact illegal and this should be made clear. I do think there is a lot of disparity in the ways the wealthy influential locals are treated as opposed to "those folks." Speaking sensibly with first-time youthful offenders should be a reasonable approach. Getting to the bottom of the recent 18YO ADULT who had the violent incident after being on some drug (bath salts??) is entirely different.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Booze is gateway to pot
a resident of Barron Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 2:30 pm

ALCOHOL is the actual gateway drug. It starts with sips from home bottles. Ask anyone including yourself. Start at the very beginning, not just where you personally draw your own line.
Also, I knew pot heads and booze hounds in my high school. The booze hounds are mostly dead or in jail, the pot heads did not go that route and forged a happy life. 53 years life experience so far for me.
Pot will drop your kids grades. Booze will kill them. Its exemplified each and every year with the stories of tragic deaths: frozen in Tahoe, car crashes, or simply drinking too much of the stuff in one sitting and dieing from the POISON. Pot is undeniably less harmful to life and limb.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Wondering?
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 14, 2014 at 2:53 pm

> Alcohol is a gateway drug ..

Not exactly. Alcohol is so disruptive that it is in a class of its own, or at least can not be compared to marijuana ..

As to drinking age and the military .. there is a big difference between a teenager behind the wheel of a car after he has consumed enough alcohol to be considered (at least) legally drunk, and that same teenager being a member of a platoon, or squad, under the watchful eye of a responsible NCO.

Teens in the military are constrained to the legal drinking ages of the states in which they are stationed:

Web Link

It's not at all clear that the military shouldn't raise its enlistment ages to 21, particularly during times of peace. Eighteen is just a number—it is not an age of wisdom.

> marijuana won't kill you ..

Tell that to this dead teen's parents ..

Web Link


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Happened once?
a resident of Barron Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 3:22 pm

Fear the drinkers. They are far more likely to kill you or your family.
Spongy minded alkies.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Definitions
a resident of Barron Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 3:28 pm

Gateway = What did you do first. It has nothing to do with actual classifications or comparisons. It simply means the first intoxicant that opened the door for the others.
Most all drink at home before pot. Booze is the gateway to pot, with pot being the secondary gateway to whatever, and so on, and so on until we all do heroin I guess. That's if you believe the inevitability of the gateway syndrome argument.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Addiction
a resident of Crescent Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 4:44 pm

Why argue over which is better alcohol or weed.? Addiction is addiction. Some people can handle their drug of choice, and some can't.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by dontregretit
a resident of Gunn High School
on Apr 14, 2014 at 4:53 pm

Dear Everyone's brain is different

Once some people try chocolate chip cookies their brain is instantly addicted, once some people have sex their brain is instantly addicted. On and on it goes. These people are used as the reason why the rest of the people should not be allowed to engage in the same behavior, but I don't think it is a legitimate reason. The person who becomes addicted would likely have an "addictive personality" and struggle with other "addictions", too, and they should deal with that tendency, not police the rest of the world.

I know a few Iraqi vets who were suffering from horrible, unrelenting PTSD until they had a little healing green salve. Do we deny them the opportunity because some person struggles with addiction? I don't think so, I think we should open up pathways for people to deal with that, better ones than we have now, and we should also start acknowledging that addiction manifests in many, many ways, not just marijuana. Look at food addiction and obesity and the cost to the general public for treating it, for example. I work in health care related field. I have noticed a disproportionate number of treatment providers for "addiction" and "mental health counselors" are obese and thus have not dealt with their own addictions at all before counseling others. My question would be if the person becomes addicted to marijuana, what were they addicted to before that? Collecting Yugio Cards? What will they be addicted to after that? Is marijuana the real "problem", does eliminating its availability eliminate addiction? If only.... If not, are we going to limit the availability of anything else people can become addicted to or are we going to focus on this one thing?


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Krispy creme addict
a resident of Crescent Park
on Apr 14, 2014 at 5:52 pm

Dear don't regret it,
Yes, you have many good points about addiction, health care etc....I'm glad you and your children are responsible weed consumers. But, if you leave Palo Alto many people are not responsible like you. How often do you hear about someone eating a dozen cookies and getting in a car accident, or get involved in a fight or crime.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Truth refuses to not come out
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 15, 2014 at 10:22 am

"How often do you hear about someone eating a dozen cookies and getting in a car accident, or get involved in a fight or crime."
Never. I can't recall ever reading that story.

If I ate a dozen cookies I'd be sick. I'd need to eat a dozen cookies to get hungry enough to eat a dozen cookies!


 +   Like this comment
Posted by RussianMom
a resident of Old Palo Alto
on Apr 15, 2014 at 1:38 pm

When a person is addicted to chocolate, overweight, and as a result suffers all types of complications - its a personal choice and consequences s/he is willing to take. When a person is high and harming others, sorry, lock yourself first. Don't spread it to the youth "as normal". Yes, in my opinion, drugs are more dangerous than sweets. And yes, we are trying to teach youth how to live a healthy life, minimizing sweets and adding exercises.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Elephant in Room
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 15, 2014 at 4:47 pm

I agree with RussianMom and will also add that alcohol is the drug most killing our teens year, over year, over year. No other drug even comes close.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by AmusedandSad
a resident of College Terrace
on Apr 15, 2014 at 10:41 pm

So much misinformation being spread. There should be actual studies done, there really haven't been any that are conclusive in any way.

The guy that ran around naked attacking people, we've heard of that before, remember the zombie instances? Most like some form of bath salts.

In terms of paranoia that comes with weed consumption, that stems from the person themselves and comes from the apprehension of being caught and prosecuted. I don't smoke weed myself, but have seen plenty of friends smoke, usually they become less stressed out and more relaxed, or simply pass out.

In terms of influencing the brain, well honestly I've known plenty of people, from various backgrounds that smoked weed and have started their own successful companies, or become successful professionals in their field.

I'm not saying I know all the possible outcomes of someone lighting up a joint, in fact I would argue none of you do. Most of your arguments come out of ignorance and mindless repetition of unproven "facts". If anything, attempting to scare your child out of it will only lead them to hide it from you, and sending them to wilderness or other treatment programs usually results in the exact opposite of what you are trying to achieve and provides them the actual gateway to harder drugs.

Just a few thoughts. I don't profess to know anything, only a fool would do that.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Wondering?
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 16, 2014 at 7:34 am

> why are there any studies?

Well .. here's one--hot off the press:

Study finds brain changes in young marijuana users:
Web Link

Young adults who occasionally smoke marijuana show abnormalities in two key areas of their brain related to emotion, motivation, and decision making, raising concerns that they could be damaging their developing minds at a critical time, according to a new study by Boston researchers.

Other studies have revealed brain changes among heavy marijuana users, but this research is believed to be the first to demonstrate such abnormalities in young, casual smokers.
---
Society for Neuroscience/BRAIN CHANGES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH CASUAL MARIJUANA USE IN YOUNG ADULTS:
Web Link

Washington, DC — The size and shape of two brain regions involved in emotion and motivation may differ in young adults who smoke marijuana at least once a week, according to a study published April 16 in The Journal of Neuroscience. The findings suggest that recreational marijuana use may lead to previously unidentified brain changes, and highlight the importance of research aimed at understanding the long-term effects of low to moderate marijuana use on the brain.
---

Presumably there will be follow-on studies to validate these findings, and extend the bounds of our knowledge. Of course, it's doubtful that teenagers will be reading any of these studies.


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Counselor
a resident of Another Palo Alto neighborhood
on Apr 21, 2014 at 12:31 pm

Perhaps the biggest downfall of mankind is the tendency toward black and white thinking and the presumption of knowing what is right and wrong for others. Final answers are comforting and I understand the desire to find them but do they really exist, outside of math? Life, for the most part, takes place in the gray area and there are exceptions to just about every rule. Everyone here is making points that are only valid for their particular case/experience and to presume that you have the answer for ANYONE else presumes you have walked in their shoes when you have not. This doesn't just go for drug use but that is the topic so that is where I will stay. Bottom line, we must stay open and look at the needs of the individual. Yes, one person can use pot, alcohol, etc, and have little effect where someone else will be permanently changed for the worse. There is not right or wrong here, and we must use our higher cognitive functioning to critically address these and other social issues with mindfulness, compassion and understanding that the only journey you KNOW is your own. Here is a link to TED Talk on the link between compounds found in marijuana and it's impressive treatment of childhood epilepsy that looks at this issue in such a manner. Web Link


 +   Like this comment
Posted by Krymsun
a resident of another community
on Apr 23, 2014 at 9:54 am

" I believe marijuana is a gateway drug to substance abuse. "

Really? Would that be because there appears to be high correlation between the use of marijuana, and later 'hard' drug use? If so then by that logic, wouldn't you be forced to agree that a substance with a much higher correlation than cannabis, a substance that more people use more of, for longer, well before problem drug use must indicate it is even more likely to be the actual 'gateway' ?

One which logically must have a 100% correlation, as every single last one of those who later exhibit drug-abuse issues first inhaled a steady diet of this substance. A substance whose overdose can result in central nervous system toxicity manifesting as symptoms such as
visual changes (especially tunnel vision),
ringing in the ears (tinnitus),
nausea,
twitching (especially of the face),
irritability (personality changes, anxiety, confusion, etc.), and
dizziness.

This may be followed by a tonic–clonic seizure consisting of two phases: intense muscle contraction occurs for several seconds (tonic); followed by rapid spasms of alternate muscle relaxation and contraction producing convulsive jerking (clonic). The seizure ends with a period of unconsciousness (the postictal state).

Sudden withdrawal from this substance invariably results in death for 100% of users, a much higher rate than for chronic alcoholics suffering the 'DTs', as an example.

Oxygen.

Stick THAT in your pipe, and smoke it!


 +   Like this comment
Posted by musical
a resident of Palo Verde
on Apr 23, 2014 at 10:13 am

That's why you need a doctor's prescription for oxygen.


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