This story is part of an in-depth package of stories on the subject of bullying in Palo Alto schools. For links to all the stories, follow this link.
"Most of the kids coming into FriendSmarts dealt with some aspect of bullying," Melamid said. It affected every age in all variations, ranging from serious and everyday to less obvious and less frequent but still an issue. It was a "pervasive problem" with the students she worked with. For the kids who experienced it, bullying was "everything from excruciatingly painful to slightly damaging." Incidents Melamid remembered from the past few years included being locked in the bathroom, hit over the head with a lunch tray, picked on, teased or excluded in mean ways.
Melamid had high praise for how the Palo Alto schools generally dealt with these issues, experiencing school professionals as "good partners with parents." The middle school staff, she said, was particularly vigilant and caring: "really on top of things."
Other local counseling services have observed bullying issues with Palo Alto students as well. Adolescent Counseling Services (ACS) Executive Director Philippe Rey told the Weekly that students are generally referred to his nonprofit for issues other than bullying (acting out, isolating themselves socially, excessive absences, falling grades, depression, etc.), and then in the course of therapy, bullying experiences can emerge as underlying issues.
"I hear a lot about relational bullying with the girls," one Adolescent Counseling Services middle school director said.
Another middle school director mentioned examples heard from students: "After school every day I'm getting hassled at my locker" or "He's threatening me as I walk home: 'You better watch out.'"
The Adolescent Counseling Services counselors interviewed agreed that while it is impossible to know from their vantage point the overall number of those bullied within the broader school population, they see the problem and its impacts often enough to view it as a serious issue.
"It has a lot of fallout, so yes, it is a serious issue, but how prevalent it is, I'm reluctant to speculate," one middle school counselor said.
According to Liz Schoeben, executive director of CASSY (Counseling and Support Services for Youth), which currently serves six Palo Alto elementary schools, peer issues (including bullying) top the list of concerns among students who saw CASSY's on-campus mental health counselors during the 2011-12 school year. In CASSY's annual report to the Palo Alto Unified School District, the "presenting issue" for 44 percent of the children seen was either "peer relationships" or "social skills." Schoeben estimates that at least half of the peer relationship cases (26 percent) involve bullying dynamics and that those needing support for social skills (18 percent) frequently are involved in bullying dynamics as well.
Most experts in the community -- educators, psychologists and parent leaders steeped in the issue -- estimate that the overall incidence of bullying and harassment in Palo Alto is about average or somewhat below that of other communities, although most are reluctant to put a number on it.
Erica Pelavin and Gloria Moskowitz-Sweet, bullying-prevention educators and founders of Digital Tat2, said that bullying in Palo Alto tends to be more subtle and thus may be harder to detect.
"In a politically correct environment, where we feel as if we can't have racism, or we can't have homophobia, those go underground," Moskowitz-Sweet said. It's less likely to be said out loud but it turns up online.
Physical bullying, the most obvious, clear-cut form, is encountered at much lower rates in Palo Alto, experts agree.
"In terms of the prevalence of bullying in Palo Alto, I would say that it is probably comparable, if not a bit lower, than bullying within other communities," Parents Place psychologist and bullying prevention program director Holly Pedersen wrote in an e-mail to the Weekly."I think that while not perfect, this community has strong awareness of bullying and the need to include (social-emotional learning) in classroom curriculum, and this is an educated community that appreciates diversity for the most part. While the numbers in the research are all over the map depending on the study, the larger and more reputable studies on bullying have found that about 30 percent of kids are involved in bullying -- about 13-15 percent as the children who bully, about 10 percent as the targets and the remaining 5-7 percent being involved both as the bullying child and the target.
"The number of kids involved in cyber-bullying appears to be slightly higher. I think that the general public often misperceives the prevalence of bullying as being much higher than it actually is -- doesn't mean that bullying isn't a problem that needs attention, just that it is not an epidemic as some people describe it," Pedersen stated.
There are two sources of federally collected data on youth bullying, according to the website "Stopbullying.gov" maintained by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) indicates that, nationwide, 20 percent of students in grades 9-12 experienced bullying.
The 2008--2009 School Crime Supplement (National Center for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics) indicates that, nationwide, 28 percent of students in grades 6-12 experienced bullying.
Bullying experts also point out that a large percentage of students who are not targets or aggressors are still impacted by the bullying dynamic when they are bystanders. According to Adolescent Counseling Services' Rey, these bystanders make up a majority of the student body in any school. Witnesses to bullying can lose their sense of security, which impacts learning and other aspects of student life, including mental health, according to Rey and national research.
National studies also show that a large percentage of bullying incidents go unreported, making bullying rates that much harder to pin down. Kevin Jennings, former assistant deputy secretary for the U.S. Department of Education, advised parents: "If you are a parent and your child tells you that they are being bullied, what you are hearing is the tip of the iceberg. If the kid is willing to talk to you about it, the problem is probably 10 times worse than they're telling you."
Palo Alto school district staff cites student surveys as an important indicator of low bullying rates in Palo Alto. One of the surveys, called Palo Alto Reality Check (PARC), is administered to all the middle schools each fall. District summaries of Reality Check data feature unusually low bullying rates; however, this is due in part to the fact that the district analysis uses the narrowest and most serious category of bullying, that which occurs once a week or more during the past 12 months. Other data for less frequent bullying is collected in the survey but is generally not included in the district's presentations of the data.
At the Feb. 12 school board meeting, district staff presented the 2012 PARC survey data to show that only 6 percent of students at JLS, 4.58 percent at Jordan and 5.73 percent at Terman were verbally bullied once a week or more in the past 12 months and that those rates had declined since 2008. Rates presented were lower for the other types of bullying surveyed (physically, social and cyber) at that level of frequency and had also generally declined.
Stanford University law and sociology professor Michele Dauber questioned the school district's conclusions about its survey data.
"When the definition includes acts occurring less frequently than once per week or more, then Palo Alto appears to have much higher rates of bullying that likely approximate the state and national norms for similar schools," Dauber wrote to the board in February.
Several of the Reality Check survey questions allow students to indicate if they have not been bullied at all during the past year. For 2011 and 2012, this data shows that between 50 and 60 percent of students fall into that category, with the rest reporting bullying somewhere along the frequency spectrum. In addition, about 40 percent report that they have never seen a student being bullied, indicating that about 60 percent have experienced the role of bystander.
A Weekly analysis of the Reality Check data obtained from the school district shows that of the 2,174 Palo Alto middle school students surveyed in fall 2012 who were asked about being bullied once or twice (or more) in the past 12 months, a total of 48 percent reported verbal bullying; 38 percent social bullying; 22 percent physical bullying; and 15 percent electronic bullying. (See bar graph.)
When asked about being bullied once a month (or more) during the past 12 months, the students' response was: 8.9 percent verbal bullying; 6.9 percent social bullying; 2.3 percent physical bullying; and 2.8 percent electronic bullying.
The survey questions defined verbal bullying as "tried to hurt your feelings -- called names, had mean things said to you, verbal threats"; social bullying as "purposefully left you out, refused to play or hang out with you, spoke behind your back, got others to not like you"; physical bullying as "hurt in any physical way -- hit, pushed, kicked, property damaged"; and electronic bullying as "email, text messages, phone, or Internet used to make you look bad to others."
A multitude of other Palo Alto survey data is available, including the California Healthy Kids Survey, the Sources of Strength survey (Gunn High School students only) and the Developmental Assets survey, all of which can be analyzed to conclude that Palo Alto falls somewhere on the scale from low to average in terms of its bullying rates, depending on how data is defined, selected and interpreted, and what it is compared to.
"I like data, but I think that data can really skew what is happening, and so it takes some really talented folks and it takes time to look at the data from a lot of different perspectives," Palo Alto High School Principal Phil Winston said. The data provides a "snapshot" that might be clear on that day but also could change a month later, he added.
Another way to look at bullying incidents is to examine how often they are actually reported in Palo Alto schools, keeping in mind that many incidents go unreported. According to Associate Superintendent Michael Milliken: "There could be 10 categories (in the Infinite Campus software system) that a staff member might pick for bullying-type behavior, depending on the context or what else happened during the course of the incident."
These categories include bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, disruption, roughhousing, teasing, caused or threatened physical injury, property damage, defied authority and "other." Also, each school follows its own unique and variably applied practices regarding which incidents warrant documentation, according to Milliken.
This is particularly true at the middle schools. At Jordan and Terman, for example, if the incident "is headed towards a disciplinary consequence," it is generally recorded, but otherwise it often is not, according to Milliken. At JLS, there is a wider net cast and a greater proportion of reported incidents recorded. Also, at Jordan bullying incidents often are referred for handling by an adult-coached, peer-mediated program (patterned after San Francisco nonprofit No Bully's non-disciplinary approach using what are called "solution teams," made up of the bullying student and several selected peers, not including the target). Those incidents are not recorded in the Infinite Campus data system, Milliken said. Jordan utilized about 15 such solution teams during the second semester of 2011-12 and another 15 during the first half of 2012-13, according to Milliken, who also noted that none of the incidents involved were "significant enough to require the school to use discipline," although discipline might have been used under more traditional approaches for some of the incidents. Jordan's Infinite Campus incident data thus does not reflect these incidents (numbering about 30) deferred for intervention under the "solution team" approach.
According to Infinite Campus data for the secondary schools provided to the Weekly by the district for all 10 categories listed by Milliken, the number of total incidents across these categories reflected the variance at the middle school level. For the first half of the 2012-13 school year, the number of such incidents recorded for JLS was 77; for Jordan 33; and for Terman 12 (note that Terman is a smaller school with about 750 students; there are 1,100 at JLS and Jordan). For 2011-12 the number at JLS was 174; at Jordan 154; and Terman 68. The year before (2010- 2011), 315 at JLS; 105 at Jordan; and 43 at Terman.
"Why some sites have more documented incidents than other ... has less to do with actual incidents of bullying and harassment between schools and more to do with recording practices," said Brenda Carrillo, district student-services coordinator.
There was less variation at the high schools. For the first half of 2012-13, Gunn recorded six incidents under bullying, harassment or sexual harassment and a total of 49 incidents in all the categories of misconduct provided, which may have included incidents involving "bullying-type behavior" according to Milliken. In that same time, Paly recorded four incidents under bullying, harassment or sexual harassment, and a total of 65 incidents in all the categories combined. For the year 2011-12, Gunn had 10 in the bullying/harassment categories and 105 overall; Paly had seven in the bullying/harassment categories and 113 overall.
The district currently provides no guidance on how documentation of bullying or harassment incidents at the middle and high schools should be kept, although that may be changing along with other policies and practices in the wake of the recent Office for Civil Rights report, according to district staff. Also, the district is planning to look at "ways to formalize collection of data at the elementary school level," Carrillo said. "We think that's really important."
Also showing variability among schools is the number of suspensions for these combined categories of misconduct. For 2011-12, for example, JLS showed three suspensions, Jordan 27, and Terman one. In the first half of the 2012-13 school year, JLS showed six; Jordan none; and Terman one.
At the high school level, for the first half of the 2012-13 school year, Gunn showed 11 suspensions and Paly seven; in 2011-12, Gunn showed 16 and Paly 17.
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